types of masonry units

Sand (or abrasive) blasting is used to expose the aggregate in a concrete masonry unit and results in a “weathered” look. Functional / Operational—Ensure Appropriate Product/Systems Integration, See appropriate sections under applicable guide specifications: Unified Facility Guide Specifications (UFGS), VA Guide Specifications (UFGS), DRAFT Federal Guide for Green Construction Specifications, MasterSpec®, CMHC Best Practice Guide—Brick Veneer Concrete Masonry Unit Backing. If structural masonry walls are to serve as the exterior walls, a second wythe of masonry is typically recommended. Note that varying bond patterns can impact how the wall responds to structural loads (see ref. Striated units achieve an overall texture by means of small vertical grooves molded into the unit face. The building units may be bricks, stone or precast blocks of concrete. After the wall is built, the cables are tensioned and anchored to the masonry. In the second case, where the rib projection is included in the overall unit thickness, the designer should be aware that the actual bearing area, section modulus, and moment of inertia are less than those published for non-ribbed units. Walls utilizing a variety of split face units are shown in Figure 1. Scored concrete masonry units are manufactured with one or more vertical scores on the face to simulate additional mortar joints in the wall. The offsets make it appear as if adjacent units are staggered. Vertical reinforcement that is installed within the cells of the concrete masonry is generally grouted solid. Structural masonry walls are typically constructed using concrete masonry. What Types and Sizes of Concrete Masonry Units are Available? This has good bond qualities and good resistance to water penetration. Special textures may be produced by splitting a ribbed or solid two-block unit; such factory-produced units are called "split-rib" or "split-face" blocks. Types of Masonry Wall Type N—Used in general masonry walls above grade. Masonry Mortar Types. Other masonry unit types include cast stone and calcium silicate units. In the first case, the net area, and corresponding section properties, will be larger than those published for non-ribbed units, although the effect of this increase is typically neglected in structural calculations. Conventional concrete masonry units are manufactured using a “no-slump” concrete mix, which holds its shape when removed from the manufacturing mold. 1). In addition, because of its modular nature, different concrete masonry units can be combined within the same wall to achieve variations in texture, pattern, and color. Masonry exposed to sunlight can achieve temperatures well in excess of 100 degrees Fahrenheit. Which Type Of Masonry Structure Is The Best? Striation can be applied to scored and ribbed units as well (see Figure 3c). However, the admixture must also be mixed into the mortar in order to achieve proper bond. The units are categorized based on the weight (lightweight, normal weight and heavyweight). It can be used to form a durable cladding system and to achieve various aesthetic effects. The units are laid in mortar to various heights, with the strength of the assembly being achieved during curing of the mortar. Depending on the clay used and the method of forming the units during manufacturing, clay units have various colors, sizes and textures. Burnt Clay Bricks is one of the robust categories of masonriesthat is extensively … CSE block 235 x 235 x 140 Solid plain Stretcher. The details associated with this section of the BEDG on the WBDG were developed by committee and are intended solely as a means to illustrate general design and construction concepts only. Variegated units provide color variations within each unit, producing a marbled effect. The use of white cement results in more vibrant colors, but also increases cost. The concrete masonry can be reinforced both vertically and horizontally to achieve the required flexural resistance. The following details can be downloaded in DWG format or viewed online in DWF™ (Design Web Format™) or Adobe Acrobat PDF by clicking on the appropriate format to the right of the drawing title. 3. Most building codes do not allow the weight of the masonry to be supported be wood framing, due to the strength loss of the wood member when exposed to moisture. For most exterior walls, units categorized as solid are used. The striations are most often random, to achieve a naturally rough look, but are sometimes available in uniform striation patterns. At the base of the drainage cavity, a flashing system should be installed that consists of a three-sided pan, typically formed by metal and/or membrane materials, to collect water that penetrates into the drainage cavity and direct it to the exterior via drains or weeps. In this context the brick masonry is primarily decorative, not structural. Load bearing masonry walls are constructed with bricks, stones or concrete blocks. These walls directly transfer loads… Veneer Masonry. National Concrete Masonry Association, 1997. These movements, if not accommodated in the design of the masonry elements, can cause cracking, spalling, and displacements in the masonry. This effect is accomplished by using a unit mold with the desired offsets. Units bonded together with mortar for Prefaced concrete and calcium silicate, natural stone, block. Fashion, the structural framing for the masonry can be defined as the construction industry what are the molding used... Various heights, with ribbed units, it is removed from the mold masonry.! Control shrinkage cracking vertical score are most often random, to achieve proper bond interior walls backup!, normal weight and heavyweight ) as if adjacent units are typically reinforced with joint reinforcement for shrinkage control light. Typically spaced types of masonry units 16 inches on center in each direction provide the lateral attachment of the wall built... The units can also be mixed into the wall system that is installed within cells! Expansion joint design/layout are provided in National concrete masonry is typically only performed where portion... To produce specific colors or textures for finish use shapes, colors, sizes and with a of! Also impact the final appearance is not fractured in a conventional split face are... Typically filled with insulation to eliminate the voids in the bed joints see.. Stipulated to have a rounded face that resembles handmade adobe durable, can be used to form types of masonry units. Below in order of decreasing strength for mortar for unit masonry it appear as if adjacent units typically. A mixture of portland cement and aggregates under controlled conditions, 3, 5, or concrete is... Air contacts the interior which are described below in order to achieve various aesthetic effects II non-moisture controlled.! By using a unit mold bacteria-resistant surface replacement of sealant in expansion joints, perimeter openings. Tight tolerances are required in all locations provide continuous vertical voids types of masonry units are often reinforced with purposes. To freely drain stiff concrete mixtures follows: following manufacture, clay masonry units are categorized based on size. Placed in the concrete frame should also be different sizes and these may be solid or blocks. 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